Results showed calculation times ranging from no improvement to better than theoretical (2x/4x) improvement on both the dual-core and quad-core systems. Typical (median) improvement for a system with an Intel dual-core Pentium 4 at 3.0 GHz with 1 GB of RAM compared to the same file calculating in Excel 2003 was 48 percent, or a 1.92x speedup. Typical (median) speedup for a system with an Intel quad-core Xeon at 3.0 GHz with 4 GB of RAM was 76 percent, or a 4.17x speedup. Similar speed improvements were observed on other processors and platforms. Improvements beyond theoretical speedup (because of multithreading) are attributed to other performance improvements starting in Excel 2007, such as improvements to the speed of function execution.